List of Roman Gods and their Greek Equivalents

Roman gods versus Greek gods

It is a known fact that the ancient Romans modeled an extensive amount of their culture and religious beliefs on the ancient Greeks, including their gods and goddesses who basically shared similar characteristics and responsibilities as the ones in the Greek pantheon.

Below is a presentation of a list of the major Roman gods and their Greek equivalents:

Roman gods versus Greek gods

Roman Name

Greek Name

Role

Jupiter Zeus Chief of the Gods
Neptune Poseidon God of the sea and oceans
Pluto Hades God of the Underworld
Juno Hera Goddess of marriage
Vesta Hestia Goddess of the hearth
Ceres Demeter Goddess of the harvest, grains and agriculture
Venus Aphrodite Goddess of beauty, love and sex
Vulcan Hephaestus God of the forge
Mars Ares God of war
Apollo Apollo God of music, poetry, and medicine
Minerva Athena Goddess of wisdom and strategic warfare
Diana Artemis Goddess of the hunt
Bacchus Dionysus God of wine
Mercury Hermes Messenger of the gods
Proserpine Persephone Goddess of the Underworld
Cupid Eros God of love
Victoria Nike Goddess of victory
Aurora Eos Goddess of the dawn
Faunus Pan God of shepherds
Luna Selene Goddess of the Moon
Sol Helios God of the Sun
Trivia Hecate Goddess of witchcraft and magic

Roman Titan gods versus Greek Titan gods

Roman Name

Greek Name

Role

Saturn Cronus Titan god of time and darkness
Ops Rhea Zeus’ mother and wife of Cronus
Themis Themis Goddess of divine order and law
Theia Theia Goddess of shining light and sight
Tethys Tethys Goddess of fresh-water, springs, fountains and clouds
Phoebe Phoebe Goddess of prophecy and bright intellect
Oceanus Oceanus God of encircling oceans
Moneta Mnemosyne Goddess of memory and mother of the Nine Muses
Iapetos Iapetus God of mortality and father of Atlas, Prometheus, Epimetheus, and Menoetius
Crius Crius Father of the constellations
Polus Coeus God of intellect

Roman primordial gods versus Greek primordial gods

Roman Name

Greek Name

Role

Nox Nyx Goddess of night
Uranus Uranus Father of the Titans
Terra Gaia Goddess of Earth
Mors Thanatos Personification of death
Scotus Erebus Personification of darkness
Montes Ourea Deities of mountains
Nemesis Nemesis Goddess of retribution
Somnus Hypnos Personification of sleep
Dies Hemera Personification of day
Necessitas Ananke Personification of necessity, inevitability and compulsion
Aeternitas Aion Personification of eternity

Interesting facts about Roman gods and Greek gods

  • In the Roman pantheon, which is predated by the Greek pantheon by about a millennium, the names of the gods and goddesses are changed; regardless their features, symbols and powers remain fairly the same as the gods in the Greek pantheon.
  • The Romans preferred naming their gods after objects, particularly celestial objects. The Greeks, on the other hand, named their gods in terms of the role and human characteristics that they epitomized.
  • Compared to the ancient Greeks, Romans placed less emphasis on the physical features of their gods. The ancient Greeks made magnificent sculptors that showered enormous positive physical looks on their gods as they believed that gods were above humans in all aspects.
  • Homer and Virgil are considered the two leading authors from both civilizations – Greek civilization and Roman civilization respectively. Homer, for example, is credited with authoring his most famous works The Iliad and The Odyssey about 700 years before Roman author Virgil came out with The Aeneid. In the latter work, the author picks of from the final few years of the Trojan War and the fall of Troy. Virgil describes how a Trojan hero by the name of Aeneus (Aeneas) fled Troy, which had been overrun by the Greeks, to Italy before founding the city of Rome.
  • In ancient Greece, it was believed that the gods occupied a distinguished position that no mortal could attain. Any attempt to compare oneself to a Greek god or goddess was met with swift punishment as they believed that the gods considered such hubris unacceptable. However, the Roman society in so many ways encouraged their citizens to strive for high standards, almost comparable to the ones possessed by the Roman gods. This explains why many of their great rulers/emperors were deified by the Roman Senate. Notable examples of such rulers were Julius Caesar and Emperor Augustus.
  • Mythical heroes like Heracles, Hector, Perseus, and Achilles were significantly more revered than their Roman counterparts. To the ancient Greeks, the heroes were individuals that came closest to the powers and strength possessed by the Greek gods. They were superhuman beings and demigods, as in the case of Achilles and Heracles, who inspired mortals to great feats and standards in the society.

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