Malcolm X’s Wife- Betty Shabazz
Betty Shabazz (also known as Betty Dean Sanders or Betty X) was the better half of Malcolm X. Shabazz was born on 28th May 1934. She was brought up in Detroit, Michigan, in a foster home. Her real parents were Ollie Mae Sanders and Shelman Sandlin. After a series of abuses (probably from Ollie Mae), 11 year old Betty Shabazz was taken in by her foster parents Lorenzo and Helen Malloy. Betty’s fight against racial segregation often brought her, along with her family, face to face with several dangers. However, none of those dangers dissuaded her from investing decades of her life to train and educate young African Americans. Below, we provide a brief biography about the life and story of Betty Shabazz- Malcolm X’s wife.
Foster Home and Early Education
Growing up, Betty had a very little encounter with racism as her foster parents shielded her from it. Her experience with the humiliating effects of racism came after high school, when she moved to Alabama in order to gain an education degree at the Tuskegee Institute.
The racially segregated atmosphere in Alabama forced her to relocate to New York City to practice nursing. New York was not devoid of racism either; however, it was a relatively much better place (race wise) than Alabama. In New York, she enrolled at the Brooklyn State College School of Nursing.
Betty Meets Malcom X
During her stay in New York, she met her sweetheart, Malcolm X. Betty and Malcolm X became great friends and soon it blossomed into a marriage. Betty and Malcolm got married on January 14, 1958.
As a certified nurse, Betty Shabazz soon learned that African American nurses were maltreated as compared to their white counterparts. By 1956, Betty Shabazz had identified herself with the activities of the Nation of Islam (NOI). Two years later, she and Malcolm X tied the knot. In 1964, the couple departed from the radical Islamic group- Nation of Islam. The couple became Sunni Muslims.
Period of Mourning
In February 1965, Betty was with Malcolm when a violent group of people opened fire on him. Malcolm X fatally passed away that very day. Her husband was about to address a crowd of 400 people at the OAAU (The Organization of Afro-American Unity) at the Audubon Ballroom, Manhattan. Investigations and autopsy results revealed that he was shot 16 times by three assailants from the Nation of Islam. For their heinous crimes, the three perpetrators got life sentences in prison.
Betty was highly devastated by the passing of her husband and experienced nightmares after his death. Malcolm’s death resulted in a huge economic burden for Betty, now a single mom. She was left all by herself to cater to the needs of their six daughters: Attallah , Qubilah , Ilyasah , Gamila Lumumba, Malaak and Malikah. In early spring, 1965, Betty Shabazz went on a pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia. The Hajj experience helped her to quickly recover from her mourning.
Single Motherhood and her Professional Career
She prepared to meet the growing demands of her family by gaining a higher education; she obtained a master’s degree in health administration and a doctorate degree in Education from New Jersey City University and the University of Massachusetts Amherst respectively.
After securing her advanced degrees, Betty Shabazz was appointed an associate professor of health sciences at Medgar Evers College in New York in 1976. Four years later, she was made the Director of Institutional Advancement at the university.
In 1975, Betty Shabazz got presidential appointments to work on the American Revolution Council, among other leadership achievements. She also worked with the U.S. Health Department.
She became friends with Coretta Scott (wife of Martin Luther King) and Mrlie Evers-Williams (the wife of Medgar Evers). Together, these three widows worked together on many great projects.
When one of her daughters, Qubilah Shabazz, got into trouble with the law, for trying to avenge her father’s death by plotting to kill Louis Farrakhan, Betty Shabazz took care of Qubilah’s son Malcolm, who was 10 years old at the time. Louis Farrakhan was a man who publicly called for harm on her husband, X.
Betty Shabazz who had always found it impossible to forgive Louis Farrakhan for the harsh words he earlier had for her late husband. In the end, they both put their differences aside; Farrakhan even helped Shabazz to raise funds in supporting her daughter’s legal battle over charges involving a malicious intention to kill him.
How Betty Shabazz Died
After an illustrious career and struggles with Malcom X, Betty Shabazz died on June 23, 1997. Her 12-year-old grandson, Malcolm, set fire to her apartment making her suffer severe burns. She died after spending three weeks in a New York Hospital.
The young perpetrator (Malcolm) was kept in a child detention center for 18 months. He was charged for arson and manslaughter.
Betty Shabazz was buried close to her husband’s grave at Ferncliff Cemetery, Hartsdale, New York. High profile personalities including Luther King’s widow, Coretta Scott, graced her funeral ceremony.
With so many accomplishments, Betty Shabazz’s memory is preserved in memorials across the United States. Famous among them has to be Columbia University’s Malcom X and Dr. Betty Shabazz Memorial and Education Center.
Here is a footage of the late Betty Shabazz, Malcolm X’s wife: