Toussaint Louverture (1743-1803): Major Facts & Accomplishments
Toussaint Louverture was the famous Haitian general who led the Black revolt against European powers in the later part of the 18th century. Known for his ability to spot weaknesses in the enemy’s lines in battle, the Bréda-born slave and son of an African prince fought bravely during the Haitian Revolution.
Ultimately, he was the one who set Haiti on its path to independence in 1804. After emancipating the slaves in the French-controlled side of Hispaniola, General Toussaint made himself the governor-general of Saint-Domingue. Unfortunately, the Haitian revolutionary leader, who was sometimes called the Black Napoleon, was later captured by French agents and shipped to a prison in France, where he would eventually die of malnutrition and pneumonia in 1803.
Achievements of Toussaint Louverture
What were some of the major feats of Toussaint Louverture? And how significant was his independence struggle to the South American continent?
World History Edu takes a quick look at the life, early childhood and accomplishments of Toussaint Louverture.
Attained his freedom in 1776
In c. 1743, Toussaint Louverture was born to a slave father who was an African prince sold into slavery in Saint-Domingue. He was born on the Bréda plantation at Haut de Cap in Saint-Domingue (present day Cap-Haïtien on the north coast of Haiti). His very outgoing personality made him a very likable figure. For example, the plantation manager, Bavon de Libertad, took quite a liking to the young Louverture and even gave him access to his personal library.
Compared to the other slaves, Toussaint was treated well and even allowed to be taught how to read and write by his godfather, a priest called Simon Baptiste. Toussaint would also grow to be a devout Roman Catholic, rejecting his African religious beliefs and Haitian Vodou.
Louverture would grow up to be moderately educated and tri-lingual – speaking French, Creole (Haitian patois) and a bit of Latin. On the plantation, he served diligently as a coachman and then later a steward. Such was the fondness his masters had for him that they granted him his freedom in 1776. A free man, Toussaint, 33, went on to tie the knot with Suzanne Simon, who bore him two children – Isaac and Saint-Jean.
Did you know?
The Haitian general was also known as Toussaint L’Ouverture or Toussaint Bréda.
Leader of the Haitian Slave Revolt that began in 1791
In August 1791, a slave rebellion erupted in the northern province of Saint-Domingue before spreading across the colony. At first, Toussaint was very hesitant to join the slaves that revolted on his plantation. However, once it had become apparent that there was no going back, he decided to participate fully. He first had to make sure that his wife and two kids were far from the epicenter of the revolt in order to ensure their safety. He also helped his former master Bavon de Libertad and his family escape to the United States.
In what was later termed as the “Night of Fire”, the revolt made its way to Toussaint’s plantation on August 22, 1791. The 48-year-old quickly became one of the leading figures of the revolt, as scores of Europeans and mulattoes (mixed ancestry of Africa and Europe) were killed and abused. The Blacks also took to burning large fields of sugarcane and coffee plantations; it was simply a time of immense chaos in the colony that was inhabited by over 500,000 enslaved people.
Toussaint’s strong and charismatic leadership was vital in giving the Blacks in the colony a sense of direction. He formed his own army and drilled them in guerrilla warfare tactics throughout the Haitian Revolution. Due to his bravery and tactical ability in finding weak spots in the enemy’s line, he took the name Louverture. The name translates into “opening” in French.
Did you know?
The slave uprising spearheaded by Toussaiant Louverture was the largest since Spartacus’ slave revolt against the Roman Republic in the first century BC. Leading close to 100,000 men, Spartacus used guerrilla warfare in a fierce slave revolt (also known as the Third Sevile War) that almost brought Rome to its knees. He was only halted in his tracks and subsequently killed by the Roman general and politician Marcus Licinius Crassus.
Toussaint was extremely skilled at forming alliances
Toussaint Louverture was a very strong but affable character who resorted to making alliances with whichever economic class, political interest group or population that would aid him in freeing enslaved people in his country.
As the leader of the Blacks, Toussaint capitalized on the confrontation between European powers (i.e. Spain, France and Great Britain) in the region. By so doing, he was able to better advance the cause of the slaves, who desired nothing more than to be free and govern themselves.
In 1793, Toussaint rallied the Blacks and joined the Spaniards of Santo Domingo (the eastern half of Hispaniola, modern day Dominican Republic) in inflicting considerable number of defeats on the French. Shortly after, he was knighted and attained the rank of a general in the army. With the help of trusted lieutenants such as his nephew Moïse, Jean-Jacques Dessalines and Henry Christophe, Toussaint secured a number of battle wins in the north. In the south, he was aided by the mulattoes in taking control of a number of British occupied territories on the coast.
However, in 1794, when the French National Convention outlawed slavery in France and all French territories, he jumped ships and turned his weapons against the Spaniards and the British. Basically, Toussaint was committed to fighting on any side that promised to bring an end to slavery in the colony.
Lieutenant-governor of Saint-Domingue (now Haiti)
For his heroic efforts in inflicting huge losses on the British and the Spaniards, he was appointed Lieutenant-governor of Saint-Domingue by the governor-general Étienne Laveaux.
By 1795, Toussaint Louverture had risen to become an important figure; his reputation was sky-high that some called him the Black Napoleon. Blacks absolutely loved him, likewise the Europeans and mulattoes.
He was able to inspire the freed Black slaves to work very hard in order to kick start the economy of Saint-Domingue. He created a very thriving atmosphere for the plantations to prosper immensely, which in turn boosted the economic fortunes of Saint-Domingue. His steady leadership enabled for order to be restored to the island. That in turn allowed some wealthy French land owners and proprietors that had fled the island to return.
Even though he never whipped the laborers, he was criticized by some Black leaders for making his people work to the point of exhaustion. As the de facto leader of Saint-Domingue he authorized profits made from the plantation to be shared among the Blacks.
Reduced racial tensions in the colony
By emancipating the Black slaves in Saint-Domingue, Toussaint was able to implement his idea of a free Black colony. But first he had to promote reconciliation between the races. He helped the former slaves, majority of whom were born in Africa, get along with each other and easily assimilate into their new environment. He also encouraged the Blacks to emulate the behavior and practices of the Europeans and mulattoes.
Governor-general of Saint-Domingue
By 1796, a power-hungry Toussaint had successfully ousted Governor-General Laveaux. With the aid of Félicité Sonthonax, a terrorist French commissioner, he then went on to introduce a constitution for the colony that made him governor-general.
As governor-general, Toussaint strongly rejected attempts by very radical French revolutionaries to turn the colony into an atheist community. He was quick to evict groups that he felt were harmful to the colony or its culture. For example, he drove out the Sonthonax and then the British in 1799. Prior to that he had signed a number of political and trade treaties with the British and the Americans in 1798 and 1799 that saw him get arms in exchange for sugar.
Toussaint was not particularly fond of Britain because they still maintained slavery as at the time. However, he did give his word not to spread his revolutionary ideas to neighboring British-controlled Jamaica and the deep south.
Due to his desire to independently govern the country, he often came into some bit of confrontation with the Directory’s (France’s Revolutionary government) and its representative Gabriel Hédouville. By the end of the 18tj century, he had consolidated his rule over the colony by forcing out André Rigaud, the leader of the semi-autonomous mulatto state in the south.
Eradicated slavery from the island of Hispaniola
Toussaint Louverture was a relentless crusader against slavery. He event went against the advice of several French officials, including Napoleon Bonaparte, and marched his army into the Spanish side of Hispaniola, Santo Domingo (present day Dominican Republic). He successfully took over the territory and abolished slavery on the entire island of Hispaniola by January 1801.
This bold move earned him enormous respect across the Atlantic. After freeing the slaves, he drafted a constitution for the colony and made himself the governor-general for life. Clearly, Toussaint was trying to emulate the actions that Napoleon Bonaparte took in France; hence he gave himself absolute powers, made Catholicism the state religion, and invested heavily in his army. He did all of those things while still trying to remain in the good books of Napoleon Bonaparte, who not only wanted to reinstitute slavery in Hispaniola but was also very suspicious of Toussaint.
Toussaint Louverture laid the pillars upon which Haiti’s independence was attained
Although he sometimes resorted to very cruel means to attain his political and social goals for Haiti, Toussaint gets big points for the actions that he took to end slavery. Many of those actions set Haiti on its path to independence on January 1, 1804.
Following his retirement and eventual death at the hands of the French, his lieutenant Jean-Jacques Dessalines and Henry Christophe carried the torch and went ahead to secure Haiti’s independence with the proclamation of Haitian Declaration of Independence on January 1, 1804. Haiti thus became the first independent Black nation in the Western hemisphere. After the United States of America, Haiti was the second independent state/republic in the Atlantic region.
Inspired other independence fighters and abolitionists throughout the Atlantic world
Toussaint Louverture’s successful slave revolution (i.e. the 13-year Haitian Revolution) served as a huge inspiration to other European colonies in the Americas to embark on their respective paths to independence. As the crusader of freedom and equality for Blacks, he was often referred to as the Black Spartacus, a reference to the famous ancient Roman gladiator who rallied gladiators to take arms against Rome.
The Haitian general’s efforts resulted in many at the time to rethink the generally held stereotypes about black inferiority and the capacity of former slaves to rule themselves. Toussaint Louverture’s intelligence, tenacity, military and political prowess are just some of the reasons why many consider him as one of the greatest slave revolutionaries of all time.