During the Pax Mongolica, the vast and well-secured trade routes of the Silk Road provided for several famous travelers with unprecedented opportunities for exploration and trade. The Mongol Empire‘s control...
Tagged: Marco Polo
Marco Polo, born in 1254 in Venice, Italy, was an explorer whose travels to Asia during the High Middle Ages introduced Europeans to the rich cultures and exotic commodities of the East, leaving an indelible mark on the annals of exploration and intercultural understanding.
Growing up, Marco’s family was affluent, with a rich history of merchants and traders. However, his early years were marked by the absence of his father and uncle, Niccolò and Maffeo Polo, who were away on a trading expedition. They journeyed through the Middle East and met Kublai Khan, the Mongol ruler of China. Recognizing their intelligence and capabilities, the Khan invited them to return, suggesting they bring learned men from the Christian world on their next visit.
When Marco was fifteen, his father returned to Venice, and the young Polo was finally acquainted with him. Eager to involve Marco in the family’s mercantile endeavors, Niccolò and Maffeo took him on their subsequent trip to Asia in 1271. This expedition would last an astonishing 24 years.
The Polos traversed treacherous terrains, from the steppes of Russia to the harsh Gobi Desert, to reach the Mongol Empire’s capital, Dadu (modern-day Beijing). They received a warm welcome from Kublai Khan, who took a liking to Marco. Entrusting him with various diplomatic and administrative tasks, Marco traveled extensively within the Empire, from Burma to India, gaining profound insights into the cultures, customs, and commercial activities of these regions.
Marco’s descriptions of his travels, particularly regarding the opulence of Kublai Khan’s court and the wonders of cities like Hangzhou, with its grand canals and bustling markets, are captivating. He detailed innovations and commodities that were unknown in the West, such as paper money, coal, eyeglasses, and a postal system.
After serving the Khan for nearly two decades, the Polos desired to return home. They had amassed considerable wealth and feared they might not survive another arduous journey given their advancing age. The Khan reluctantly allowed them to leave, assigning them to escort a Mongol princess to Persia for a diplomatic marriage.
Reaching Venice in 1295, the Polos were confronted with a world that had vastly changed during their absence. Moreover, their tales of the East were met with skepticism. In 1298, Marco was captured during a conflict between Venice and Genoa and imprisoned. It was during this time that he narrated his experiences to a fellow inmate, Rustichello da Pisa, who transcribed them. This account, titled “The Travels of Marco Polo” or “Il Milione”, became one of the most influential travelogues in history.
Marco Polo was released in 1299 and lived another two decades in Venice, where he continued his mercantile pursuits. He passed away in 1324, leaving behind a legacy that would inspire countless explorers, most notably Christopher Columbus.
Marco Polo’s significance is not merely as an explorer but as a cultural bridge. His writings, teeming with observations and anecdotes, provided the West with invaluable insights into the civilizations of the East, fostering an early spirit of globalization and intercultural appreciation.
The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West, facilitating the exchange of goods, culture, and ideas between diverse civilizations. Spanning over two...
Pax Mongolica, also known as the Mongol Peace, was a period of relative peace, stability, and facilitated trade across Eurasia during the 13th and 14th centuries. This sort of golden...
Since the dawn of time, human beings have always been very curious of the world around them. Often times, those explorations and adventures into the unknown accrued immense benefits to...